Archiv für die Kategorie ‘Ägypten’

„Flüchtlinge stehen unter Generalverdacht“

Freitag, 15. Januar 2016

Aus einem Interview der Wiener Zeitung mit Thomas v. der Osten-Sacken:

Sexualisierte Gewalt in der Öffentlichkeit ist also eine politische Waffe. Warum sollten Migranten und Flüchtlinge diese in Köln einsetzen? Führen die Krieg gegen die deutsche Gesellschaft?

Mir scheint es aus meiner Erfahrung sehr unwahrscheinlich, dass das etwas Spontanes war. Ein Flüchtling, der jetzt aus Syrien nach Deutschland kommt, versucht, sich irgendwie zu organisieren. Ich kann mir nicht vorstellen, dass es dessen größtes Problem ist, sich in Köln auf den Hauptbahnhof zu stellen. (…)

Aber – wer war es dann? Haben Sie eine Theorie?

Ich habe keine Theorie. Ich sage nicht, dass es ein Anschlag war, aber der Effekt ist derselbe. Vorher ist nie etwas passiert und dann plötzlich passiert es in sieben Städten am gleichen Tag. Das sind Fragen, die man sich stellen muss. Justizminister Heiko Maas, einer der ganz wenigen, die einen vergleichsweise kühlen Kopf bewahrt haben, hat ja angedeutet, dass es sich da um etwas Organisiertes handeln kann. Man muss schauen, was da passiert ist: Wie schnell es möglich ist, in Deutschland eine hysterische Massenbewegung zu erzeugen, deren Folgen fatal sind. Jetzt wird der Ruf nach Verschärfung der Gesetze, nach Ausweisung laut, jeder Flüchtling steht unter Generalverdacht.

Fighting the conservative mood

Freitag, 21. März 2014

As head of the Egyptian delegation to the two-week meeting of the Commission on the Status of Women, which ends Friday, Tallawy said she has been working hard to prevent any rollback on hard-fought gains including international recognition of women’s reproductive and sexual health and rights.

“We are saying the gains that we have reached during the 1990s, we should not lose it now, or take a step backwards,” Tallawy said in an interview on Wednesday between negotiating sessions. “Why are we saying so? Because there is a conservative mood in the world, not only the Islamists, the developing countries, but also in the developed countries.”

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Egypt launches first prosecution for female genital mutilation after girl dies

Samstag, 15. März 2014

A doctor will stand trial for the first time in Egypt on charges of female genital mutilation, after a 13-year-old girl died following an alleged operation in his clinic last year.

In a landmark case, Dr Raslan Fadl is the first doctor to be prosecuted for FGM in Egypt, where the practice was banned in 2008, but is still widely accepted and carried out by many doctors in private.

Sohair al-Bata’a died in Fadl’s care in June 2013, and her family admitted that she had been victim to an FGM operation carried out at their request.

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Polling for the constitution referendum

Dienstag, 14. Januar 2014

From the Al Ahram Live Blog:

Sherif Taher of the liberal Wafd Partysays the percentage of voters endorsing the constitution is not the crucial thing — a big turnout is of the utmost importance to give the charter undisputed legitimacy.

„There is no doubt the ‚yes‘ vote will exceed 90 percent, this is no concern, given that the Muslim Brotherhood has decided to boycott the poll,“ he tells Ahram Online. „What really matters now is that we see a high turnout.“

„I am afraid the media keeps saying the numbers are huge, which could make other people not bother to cast their ballots. They should start urging people to go, it doesn’t matter what their votes are, but they have to go.“

„If, for instance, the turnout does not exceed 30 percent, that would mean the public has more or less rejected the constitution. But on the contrary, if the turnout is 60 or 70 percent, that will strengthen the status of the constitution.“

Ägyptens Männer verzweifeln am Nein ihrer Frauen

Samstag, 11. Januar 2014

Birgit Svenson berichtet aus Ägypten über die Folgen des „arabischen Frühlings“:

Zweifellos hat der „arabische Frühling“ das Leben der Menschen am Nil verändert. Wie auch immer die Revolution ausgehen mag, in welche Richtung sich das Land entwickeln wird, eines ist sicher: Ägypten wird nie wieder so sein wie vor dem 25. Januar 2011. Der Aufstand gegen die Staatsmacht hat eine eigene Dynamik entwickelt. Er hat dazu geführt, dass die 83 Millionen Ägypter zu politisch erwachsenen Menschen wurden, die eine angemessene Teilhabe am politischen Geschehen und der Entwicklung der Gesellschaft einfordern. (…)

Ägypten ist das Land in der arabischen Welt mit den schlechtesten Lebensbedingungen für Frauen, das ergab eine Mitte November veröffentlichte Studie der britischen Thomson Reuters Stiftung. Sie hat untersuchen lassen, welche Rechte Frauen in islamisch geprägten Staaten haben und welchen Gefahren sie in ihren jeweiligen Heimatländern ausgesetzt sind. (…)

(mehr …)

Egypt’s new constitution

Freitag, 13. Dezember 2013

Al Ahram analyses the new Egyptian constitution:

Inside Egypt’s draft constitution: Progress on key freedoms

Inside Egypt’s draft constitution: Role of sharia redefined

Inside Egypt’s draft constitution: Checks and balances mediate presidential power

Inside Egypt’s draft constitution: Questions over social justice

Inside Egypt’s draft constitution: Debates over military powers continue

Egypt’s constitution 2013 vs. 2012: A comparison

Der Kampf um den „zivilen“ Staat

Sonntag, 24. November 2013

In Aegypten geht unvermindert die Auseinandersetzung weiter, ob in der Verfassung das Wort „ziviler Staat“ verwendet werden soll, oder nicht. Die Salafiten wehren sich dagegen mit Haenden und Fuessen:

According to the preamble, „The constitution is for a civilian, democratic and modern state in Egypt.“

The above words triggered, however, furious reactions from Mohamed Ibrahim Mansour, representative of the ultraconservative Salafist Nour Party. Mansour, in a request submitted to chairman of the committee Amr Moussa, said „The party strongly rejects the word ‚civilian‘ because it reflects Western and secular values.“ „We want the word ‚civilian‘ to be omitted from the preamble and it is enough to state that the constitution is for a democratic and modern Egypt,“ read Mansour’s request.

Mansour also wanted the preamble to state that the new constitution aims to keep abreast of Islamic Sharia and the latest international developments. The preamble states that, „We write a constitution that opens the road for the future and is in line with international conventions on human rights, which we played a role in writing and endorsing, and which the honourable institution of Al-Azhar stressed go in line with the noble goals of Sharia.“

 

Radeln gegen Unterdrückung

Samstag, 09. November 2013

A group that goes by the name “Tomorrow” organized a bicycle demonstration in Egypt’s Suez on Friday evening where tens of girls biked on the Corniche in defiance of sexual harassment.

 A number of men also joined the demonstration in solidarity with the female participants to stress that society must let women go about their daily lives without fear.

“The idea is to revolt against this model imposed on Egyptian women by society since the 70’s where everything outside of it is considered a crime that we have to pay for,“ said Coordinator Marwa Radwan.

She pointed out that sexual harassment and verbal and psychological attacks are the society’s way of punishing women and teaching them to take caution with every move they make.

Radwan added that they decided to organize the demonstration after similar attempts in Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said were successful.

Quelle

Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung im Diskurs

Samstag, 26. Oktober 2013

Geht es um Genitalverstümmelung, mag man in manchen Expertenkreisen die Islam-Auslegung und Sunnah-Exegese nicht länger den Gläubigen und Religionsgelehrten überlassen:

Menschen, die annehmen, dass die weibliche Beschneidung zur Sunna des Propheten gehört, verweisen auf einen Ausspruch Mohammeds, der einer Beschneiderin zwar erlaubt die Praktik weiterhin anzuwenden, aber sie anweist nur wenig wegzuoperieren. Es lässt sich kaum eine ausdrückliche Befürwortung der Praxis durch den Propheten aus diesen Worten ableiten.

Doch, es lässt sich, ganz prima sogar. Aber die Realität vor Ort schert Anna Kölling, die auch ein Buch zum Thema mit dem bezeichnenden Titel „Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung im Diskurs“ verfasst hat, offenkundig wenig. Was zählt, ist der Diskurs. Der füllt sich alsdann mit dem Lieblingsnarrativ deutscher Orientalisten, Kulturrelativisten und Islamisten: Der Islam ist rein, die Menschen kennen oder befolgen ihn nur nicht richtig, und außerdem ist der Westen auch nicht besser.

Die Tatsache, dass weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in der westlichen Welt praktiziert wurde und ebenso unter koptischen Christen in Ägypten verbreitet ist, spricht gegen die Behauptung eines rein islamischen Ursprungs der Praxis.

Ich meine, wir sollten dringend mal nachprüfen, ob die offenkundig sehr erfolgreichen Konzepte zur Bekämpfung von Genitalverstümmelung in Deutschland nicht auch auf heute betroffene Länder anwendbar sind. Spaß beiseite, die Autorin ist nämlich dem wahren Ursprung von FGM dicht auf der Spur: (mehr …)

Entislamisierung der ägyptischen Verfassung

Samstag, 21. September 2013

The ten-member committee also removed Article 4, which consolidated restrictions imposed on parliament and the Constitutional Court by granting Al-Azhar, the highest Sunni authority, an advisory role on all legislation relating to Sharia. In fact, this article formalised and made mandatory a practice already in place to seek the advice of Al-Azhar on the laws relating to Sharia. Al-Azhar, however, never called for such a strengthening of its role. It is even opposed to it, saying it did not want to be dragged into politics.

The ten-member committee’s draft also cleared the 2012 text of various provisions and additions of religious inspiration. These are Article 10, which says the state and „society“ protect moral values, which could, according to some jurists, pave the way for the creation of a religious police; Article 44 which prohibits offence against the „prophets and messengers“ of God, and Article 76 which authorises judges to make rulings based on the texts of the constitution, not only laws. That would have allowed judges to decide sentences by referring to constitutional texts relating to Sharia. Article 69 of the new draft constitution explicitly limits penalties to those mentioned in the penal code.

Quelle

Egyptian activists battle ‘epidemic’ of sexual harassment and violence

Freitag, 20. September 2013

Most of the attacks occurred in or near Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo where hundreds of thousands of opposition protesters had gathered to demonstrate against the Muslim Brotherhood president and later, to celebrate his downfall. Vicious mobs used metal chains, sticks , blades and knives to attack female protesters despite the presence of volunteer vigilante groups keeping an eye out for harassers.

In response to the surge in harassment, several civil society organisations have sprung up in recent months with the aim of curbing sexual assaults and protecting victims of harassment. One such organisation is the Anti-Sexual Harassment Campaign , an outreach movement set up in November 2012 to keep track of harassment cases and send teams of volunteers to protest sites to intervene in mob assaults. The organisation is just one of several movements monitoring protest sites and offering ‘safety advice’ to women. The emergence of such movements is evidence of the growing unwillingness to tolerate street harassment as public awareness about the problem increases .

Police in Egypt have meanwhile, formed a special unit of female police officers to combat street harassment in particular, and violence against women in general. While the unit is still small in size –consisting only of ten women—rights campaigners believe it is “a step in the right direction.”

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Das letzte Wort bleibt bei Al Azhar

Sonntag, 15. September 2013

Wie immer man es nennen mag, was da gerade in Ägypten geschieht, dass jedenfalls die salafitische Nour Partei (vielleicht auch unter Druck aus Saudi Arabien, dem neuen Mentor der neuen ägyptischen Regierung) bereit ist, auf Artikel 219 der Verfassung zu verzichten, sollten die Kleriker der Al Azhar Universität dieser Forderung nichtreligiöser Parteien und Gruppierungen zustimmen, ist doch ein recht verblüffender Sinneswandel, bedenkt man, welche Töne die Partei noch vor einem Jahr angeschlagen hat. Noch stärker als in den vergangenen zwei Jahren betont nämlich Al Azhar, dass sie einen zivilen Staat unterstütze und keineswegs einen religiösen:

The Nour party’s chairman, Younis Makhioun, said he – and representatives of other political parties – attended Sunday’s meeting with interim-President Adli Mansour to discuss Egypt’s post-30 June political roadmap.

Ahead of the meeting, Makhioun said the Nour party is keen to see a settlement reached regarding disputed articles, through negotiations among all political forces and factions.

The Nour party’s new position represents a shift from earlier statements, emphasising that „the party would not accept that article 219 – and other Islamic identity articles – be eliminated from the new constitution.“

Representatives of Al-Azhar said they are against any articles aimed at turning Egypt into a religious state. Mohamed Abdel-Salam, chairman of the State and Foundational Principles Committee and legal advisor to the Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar, said „some imams in the last period have highly distorted the image of Islam and all should know that Islam rejects a religious state.“

The Nour party’s position was highly lauded by Anwar Al-Sadat, chairman of the liberal-oriented Reform and Development party. According to Al-Sadat, „the Nour party’s decision to leave the final word on Islamic Sharia articles to the moderate and highly-esteemed institution of Al-Azhar is a very honourable and progressive step … because Al-Azhar enjoys unlimited appreciation from all forces, including Egyptian churches,“ he said.

Nichtreligiöse dominieren …

Sonntag, 08. September 2013

Representatives of liberal forces swept the leading positions of the Committee of 50 during internal elections on Sunday, ending the day with a resounding majority in the newly-formed committee tasked with writing the final draft of Egypt’s post-30 June constitution.

Amr Moussa, a former presidential candidate and past secretary-general of the Arab League, was elected committee chairman with 30 votes. His rival, lawyers syndicate chairman Sameh Ashour, got 16 votes. Two votes were considered invalid.

According to Mohamed Salmawy, the committee member in charge of counting the votes, 48 members out of a total 50 attended the session. Absent were El-Sayed Mohamedein, chairman of Suez Canal University, and Bassam Al-Zarqa, deputy chairman of the ultraconservative Islamist Salafist Nour party. Mohamedein is currently outside Egypt, whereas Al-Zarqa is expected to attend tomorrow’s session following a last-minute Nour party vote in favor of participating in the committee.

Quelle

Faces of a New Middle East: Ismaeel from Egypt

Montag, 02. September 2013

Kolonialismus der Muslimbrüder

Sonntag, 01. September 2013

Aus einem Interview mit einem koptischen Aktivisten:

Außerdem sind in der Übergangsregierung überwiegend Konstitutionalisten, und linke Nasseristen aus dem Umfeld von »Tamarod« haben dort Einfluss. Der Weg ist richtig, ich sehe das Problem nicht. Auch nicht, dass dort von Mubarak korrumpierte Leute sitzen. Sie sind wenigstens keine Terroristen und konstitutionell gebunden. Das Problem der Muslimbrüder ist ihr kolonialistisches Besatzer-Verhalten. So sagte etwa 2010 der ehemalige Vorsitzende der Muslimbrüder, Mohammed Mahdi Akef: ›Hör’ mir auf mit Scheiß-Ägypten! Ich kenne nur eine Nationalität: den Islam.‹ Deswegen geht es auch nicht um die Fortsetzung der Revolution um jeden Preis, womöglich noch mit den Muslimbrüdern, sondern um die Garantie konstitutioneller Rechte. Oder so ausgedrückt: Auch wenn es unter Mubarak den Kopten schlecht ging, so sind für mich 30 Jahre Mubarak so schlimm wie ein Jahr Mursi.

Absturz

Dienstag, 06. August 2013

Only 29 percent of Egyptians claimed they have confidence in the government, according to Gallup’s June 2013 poll results, which is the lowest-ever polling since tracking started soon after January 2011. It was first time the indicator fell below 50 percent. Some 66 percent indicated that they didn’t have confidence in the government.

The decline in confidence wasn’t only related to the government, but also the Freedom and Justice Party — the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood — that dropped in support from 67 percent around the time of parliamentary elections to a mere 19 percent in June 2013. Some 73 per cent said they did not support the party — the largest opposition to the party since its establishment in spring 2011.

Quelle

Murky Waters

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013

Mahmoud Salem über die politischen Akteure in Ägypten nach dem Sturz Mohammad Mursis:

As we move ahead as a nation with a new transition plan, it’s important to note who is and who isn’t a player in this new phase, and where they fall in this new state order. People who are out of the stage of influence are both the Muslim Brotherhood and the independent Jan 25 revolutionary symbols: the former due to being the party that this revolution was created to oust, and the latter due to their usual inherent and systemic problems (lack of organisation, mixed messaging, in-fighting, etc.) coupled with a record-low popularity amongst the Egyptian public, who fairly or unfairly, after the mess of the past three years, no  longer trust them or their judgment very much. Their unease with the post-30-June Egypt, while completely understandable, has placed them on the fringes of an explosively polarised political scene where there is no room for a nuanced position, for now anyway.

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How NOT to Write about Egypt

Mittwoch, 10. Juli 2013

Events in Egypt are dangerous and frightening. But even more disturbing is the looking-glass world of Washington punditry in which Egyptians are simply incapable of democracy or must choose between Morsi and al-Qaeda; a gruesome fantasyland in which Ghannouchi psychedelically morphs into Mandela, and the blood-soaked mass murderer Pinochet is celebrated as a model of governance.

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A coup?

Freitag, 05. Juli 2013

As the historian Khaled Fahmy pointed out to the New York Times, it was the whole society versus a clique, thereby creating the most existential crisis in the ninety-year history of the Muslim Brotherhood.

One might, of course, still insist on a legalistic approach to what happened, or indulge a ballot-box fetish (notwithstanding the fact that the demonstrators were specifically calling for early elections), and insist that neither this, nor for that matter, what happened on 25 January, which, incidentally, had a more overtly military endgame, were revolutions. One might argue that the demonstrators have no right to call for early elections, and that once elected, a president has every right to finish his term, come what may. Then, and only then, can one call this “unquestionably a coup”.

Does this mean that we have a happy ending? Not quite. Not yet anyway. The revolution took place to fulfill specific goals – embodied in the legendary trio “bread, freedom and social justice”. We are certainly not there yet. The road to full redemption is long, problematic and complex. Setbacks can and may occur. But if we were to take home only one thing from the amazing outpour of Egyptians that took to the streets in millions to reclaim their revolution, it will be this: Egypt’s revolution continues, its contradictions abound, but a revolution it remains.

Quelle

Please don’t tell us …

Donnerstag, 04. Juli 2013

Mahmoud Salem in Daily News Egypt:

No matter what happens, let’s celebrate the Egyptians who have stood in the millions in opposition to attempts of creating a theocratic state in Egypt. Muslims and Christians went down yesterday to stop a government that: (1) attempted to destroy the institution of the state; (2) utilised religion to smear its opponents and critics; and (3) incited sectarianism on an unprecedented level against both Christians and Shiites (locally and abroad). In the new Egypt there will naturally be a place for Salafi and religious conservative parties, but they will have to abide by the rules of the game: no sectarianism, no thuggery and no religion in politics. Politics should be the war of ideas aimed at making the lives of people better, not a method to get into power to simply fulfil your fantasies of absolute power and divine rule.

 While we are at it, dear western analysts and pundits: please don’t tell us that we shouldn’t take to the streets and overthrow a regime that violates our rights, kills us, places itself above all accountability (popular or judicial) and fails at providing even the most basic functions of the state due to its insistence on resorting to nepotism over efficiency and experience. You have institutions, we don’t. You have rights that are respected in the constitution, we don’t, and we won’t be silent until they are enshrined as well, and we will topple any regime that attempts to take them away from us. The age of the strong stabilising autocratic regimes in the Middle East is over. For one last time, the people will decide their fate, not regimes or interests. Also, dear US government: it would be wise to remove Ambassador Anne Patterson from her position, and place her as far away from the Middle East as possible for her complete and epic failure to do her job and complete antagonism to the population in your name. Transfer her elsewhere.  Swaziland sounds nice.