Hanin Ghaddar benennt das zentrale Probleme im Nahen Osten, den Grund, warum die Forderungen des sog. Arabischen Frühlings ins Leere liefen:
The dismal aftermath of the Arab Spring ought to have made Hamas realize that today Arabs throughout the region have even more limited choices in governance; namely, political Islam and autocracy. The alternative to Mohammad Morsi in Egypt turned out to be a military coup. Dictatorships in Iraq and Syria have given way to an extremely aggressive Islamic State (IS). The alternative to Hamas would be either a radical Islamist group or a very weak and corrupt Palestinian Authority.
But if the Arab Spring has given way to this new delimited reality, it’s because it did not put the individual liberties and personal freedoms that define genuine citizenship at the core of its creed. The general rhetoric of the opposition in most of the Arab Spring countries ignored individual rights and freedoms and marginalized the rights of women and minorities. We have failed to act as citizens, and this is why we find ourselves trapped in the same old conspiracy theory narratives.
Looking at recent developments in Iraq, Syria and Egypt, the takeaway of the past three years of the Arab Spring seems to be more about understanding our shortcomings rather than actually overcoming them. We now know that we are presented with one of two options – freedom or security; never the two in tandem. If anything, recent experiences have taught us that security tends to come in the form of totalitarianism; you either get a military regime or a sectarian ruler, and as long as the individual is not valued, this will always be the formula.